In the article, IT Innovation for the Bottom of the Pyramid (Communications of the ACM, Vol. 55 No. 12, Pages 24-27, 10.1145/2380656.2380665), Richard Heeks outlines (6) alternatives to the traditional model of IT innovation:

  • Intermediated Innovation
  • Collaborative Innovation
  • Grassroots Innovation
  • Frugal Innovation
  • Innofusion
  • Reverse Innovation

The author describes how serving the "bottom of the pyramid" markets - emerging markets of low-income nations that represent the next frontier for IT - will require doing new things in new ways starting with a new mind-set that "sees the world's poor not in terms of the remote, helpless images..., but through more positive and active images that understand them at least as IT consumers and perhaps, further, as agents in their own development."

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Last updated: 
May 19, 2016